The vaccine is a product that is prepared from biological substances like proteins that are introduced into an individual’s body to weaken viruses and bacteria. This helps to immune the person from the disease and immune the body by stopping viruses or bacteria from replicating them. Vaccines are introduced by two means in an individual’s body a) by injections or needles and most of the vaccines are injected inside through injections b) By orally through the mouth or the vaccine is sprayed into the nose.


Main Types of vaccines

1)    Live-attenuated vaccines

2)    Inactivated vaccines

3)    Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines.

4)    Toxoid vaccines.

Live-attenuated vaccines:  A live attenuated vaccine is used to weaken bacteria or viruses. The vaccine would reduce the effect of viruses and bacteria but the pathogens would be alive and would be unable to reproduce due to repeated culturing in the body. A live attenuated vaccine is similar to the natural infection caused to the body. The immune response is similar to the vaccine as a natural infection that leads to increased individual immunity and the body starts generating antibodies and the body gets rid of all kinds of infections and a few doses of the vaccine could provide lifelong immunity from the disease. Although the vaccine has some drawbacks too like the vaccine is basically introducing different substances to get rid of the disease but many times vaccines have a revert effect that could make a person sicker and an individual can be prone to many diseases. These vaccines require refrigerators and a cold environment to travel and the patients prone to HIV or cancer are undergoing any chemotherapy.

BCG vaccine, typhoid vaccine is used to cure Bacteria

The measles vaccine, Live attenuated influenza vaccine, chickenpox vaccine, smallpox vaccine, oral polio vaccine (Sabin), rotavirus vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, and yellow fever vaccine is used to cure Virus.

Inactivated Vaccines: Inactivated vaccines are also known as killed vaccines. The vaccines consist of pathogens growing in the body that are being killed physically or chemically. Heat, radiation, and usually formalin. Viruses and bacteria are destroyed completely. Inactive vaccines are dead and cannot reproduce. After inactive vaccines are introduced the immune system of the body treats only the components that are included in the vaccines. The dose needs to be taken again and again. But after a few doses of the vaccines, the disease is considered a natural infection and immunity responds back a similar way. The antibodies decrease the effect of the vaccine and a redo may be needed. The major advantage of inactive vaccines is they do not cause infectious diseases. These do not need any refrigerators for exporting, and these vaccines cannot be reproduced that would not give birth to another disease. The stability of the vaccine is high and the shelf life is long. But the duration of the immunity is less.

Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines: These vaccines are used to cure long-term and targeted diseases. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines used specific proteins, and sugar to prepare the vaccine. The pieces of the germs are used to weaken immune systems and cure long-term health problems. The vaccine gives a very strong response to the immune and particularly targeted particular diseased area. These doses are very strong and vaccines need booster shots to cure a disease that is not healthy for an individual. The diseases cured are Haemophilus influenza type b, Hepatitis B, Human papillomavirus, Whooping cough, Pneumococcal disease, Meningococcal disease, Shingles, etc.

Toxoid vaccines: These vaccines are harmful and cause disease and add immunity to the part of the germ that would be prone to the disease. These vaccines are used to protect from disease even that is prone in an individual’s body. Examples of Toxoid vaccines are Diphtheria and Tetanus.


But now World has faced a pandemic that has taken millions of innocent lives and has been declared a global outbreak.


COVID-19  Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), a novel infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome is an ongoing pandemic that has resulted in 1.15 million deaths, and currently, there are 43 million active cases in the world as recorded on October 25, 2020 (Template: COVID-19 pandemic data, 2020).

The figures are terrifying as they make people believe that covid-19 can wipe out the entire human race from the planet earth. The major concern is that it has hit the entire world at the same time and has taken over one million and counting lives which is absolutely a big number.

  • As per CTV News, there is a total of 217,763 confirmed Covid-19 cases in Canada, with 24,657 active cases, 183,102 recovered, and 9,962 deaths, out of 3,099 deaths are from Ontario (staff, 2020).
  • Since 2000, the average number of total deaths in Canada is more than 200 thousand as per Statistics. In 2018, the total death count was 283.77 thousand and in 2019, it was 287.46. From July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, the figure for death count in 2020 is 300.31 thousand in Canada and 115,126 in Ontario (Statista).
  • As per Statistics Canada, approximately 8500 Canadians died due to flu and pneumonia (Statistics Canada, 2020).

The important facts to be withdrawn from all these numbers are:

  • The total number of deaths due to Covid-19 is 9,962 so far as per the facts by CTV whereas there were around 8500 deaths primarily due to influenza and pneumonia in 2018. This shows that on average, around 9000 people die every year due to respiratory diseases.
  • The stats presented are based on the number of tests conducted for Covid. As the number of tests increased, so does the number of positive cases. The data is not helpful unless the number of positive cases per 1000 test approach is not taken into consideration (Denley, 2020).
  1. Canadian government initially followed the lead of both the World Health Organization and the Chinese government. It was only until the US closed its borders on March 13 that Canada closed its borders on March 16, with a declaration of a state of emergency in Ontario on March 17 ((Passifiume, TorontoSun, 2020). Whereas some countries such as Australia went with an approach as per their own health experts rather than just following WHO did a much better job. I personally believe the Australian government did a great job as the number of deaths confirmed so far is 905 whereas, in Ontario, there has been a total of 3,093 deaths (Template: COVID-19 pandemic data, 2020).

In a nutshell, I believe the Canadian government failed to do the research on its own and be proactive to control the spread of viruses. They started to act when a lot of damage was caused and as a result till May 07, 2020; 82% of senior Canadians died due to Covid-19 (MacCharles, TheStar, 2020). The most vulnerable Canadians had already become the victims of Coronavirus.

The best part of the Canadian government was that it supported its residents by providing them with financial aid. They helped daily waged workers, small businesses, and large-scale businesses with programs such as CERB which assured that the general public does not face much financial crisis. Strict measures are taken by the Ontario government such as issuing fines for house gatherings, parties and making masks, and social distancing a compulsion in grocery stores, temples, and tourist spots helped to control the widespread of the deadly virus.

  1. As of October 10, the Ontario Government has declared Stage 2.

I slightly agree with this approach as long as the medical data supports this decision. As published in the report in Toronto Sun, the lockdown and the measures taken by the government has deprived the quality of education and life young adult deserved at this age which was crucial for them to develop important skills and relationships.

If I had been given an opportunity to do something; I would have taken the following initiative:

  1. Places like gyms, fitness centers, personal care services, etc. would remain open but with regulations to ensure individual measures are being taken into consideration.
  2. Rather than just focusing on temporarily closing public places, I would have kept more supervision on social gatherings and made stringent regulations such as imposing heavy penalties for the people conducting such gatherings.

The government gave some relaxation to the people for conducting events involving a restricted number of people, but these restrictions weren’t fully followed. Eventually, the province had to face a surge in the count of covid-19 cases.

4. As per data from January 12, 2021, to January 15, 2021

The total number of confirmed cases has been reached 224,984. The figures are terrific. So the Ontario government has again declared 2nd stage provincial emergency and they have encouraged enforcement measures to reduce the outgoing of the natives and asked the natives to stay home. Covid-19 is spreading in such a way that the government has taken many serious actions they issued stay-at-home orders and an individual can only have essential trips.

There are other consequences like many surgeries being canceled and rescheduled just to help covid-19 victims. The ratio of covid-19 victims is increasing drastically. We agree with this approach to save Canadians\’ lives. So stay home and stay safe as it is well-said Precaution is better than cure.

COVID-19 Vaccine

The covid-19 vaccine has been introduced in Canada. The very first dose has been received in Saskatoon and the second dose must be consumed after 21 days of the first dose but there are some consequences like unavailability of the vaccines due to high demand. To prevent covid-19 vaccines are effective ways and widespread vaccination will bring relief however the virus cannot affect many humans. The vaccine introduced is 95% efficient and is even curing severe symptoms of covid-19. To prevent covid-19, vaccines are effective and widespread vaccination will bring relief however the virus cannot affect many humans. The vaccine introduced is 95% efficient and is even curing severe symptoms of covid-19.COVID-19 vaccines are basically The Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca Vaccine, and Moderna. The covid-19 jab is an mRNA vaccine

The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna have high charges and are difficult to export as they require -70C whereas AstraZeneca vaccines are stored at freeze temperature and room temperature.

As of 16 January 2021 data

Total Global Cases of COVID 19: 93,285,518

Total Global deaths due to CoVID-19: 1,975,176

Drawbacks of COVID vaccine:

The vaccine causes pain at the site of injection. An individual feels cold which leads to feeling feverish and tired. A person suffers from flu-like symptoms and the Side effects of the vaccine could be seen after a second dose as the effects would be worse. But still, vaccines\’ side effects are not known yet.

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